A carburetor plays a critical role in running gas chainsaws. This component must function properly to allow the necessary air and fuel mixture. It is responsible for letting a specific amount of air reach the fuel.
Otherwise, the engine would either run rich or lean. The chainsaw won’t chop correctly in both cases and might not even run.
Proper chainsaw carburetor adjustment is a part of the basic maintenance of any chainsaw. Despite being simple, all chainsaw owners do not practice this adjustment. The secret lies in proper control of the adjustment screws. If you want to know more about adjusting your carburetor, keep reading this blog post.
Understanding the Carburetor
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Before diving deep into adjustment steps, we will help you understand more about the carburetor and how it works.
What is a Carburetor?
A carburetor is not only found inside gasoline-powered chainsaws. It is a primary component in all mechanical machines running 2-stroke engines. It is mainly responsible for vaporizing the gas and blending it with air.
The carburetor is supposed to draw sufficient levels of air per engine load and other mechanical conditions. Inside the carburetor, the fuel is vaporized and atomized. Then air and fuel get mixed proportionally.
When a carburetor is not correctly adjusted, too much or too little air is mixed with the fuel. Incorrect air-fuel mixtures result in various problems with the tool’s performance.
When there is too much air mixed with the fuel, this indicates lean running of the carburetor. However, if there is less air in the mixture, this suggests the carburetor is set on rich adjustment.
In the first case, the chainsaw would suddenly overheat. Moreover, there will be an inevitable engine failure. In the second case, you would B.
Types and Components of a Carburetor
Carburetors are found in different types. They come in different categories that are classified depending on various characteristics. For instance, carburetors can be classified according to the number of their units.
In this case, you will find single and double carburetors. Also, they can be categorized based on the types of venturi.
The categorization can go on forever, as there are numerous classification factors. However, a general classification divides carburetors into three different types.
1. Uplift Carburetors:
This is one of the first types of carburetors. In this design, the air is supposed to flow from the bottom to the top. So, the airflow direction is upward until it exits the carburetor and reaches the engine. In this case, the carburetor is located below the intake manifold.
2. Down draft Carburetors:
In simple words, this type of carburetor is the exact opposite of the uplift type. These carburetors are designed to have the airflow downward. The air flows into the carburetor from above but heads down to reach the engine. This typically means that the carb is found above the intake.
3. Horizontal Carburetors:
Horizontal or side-draft carburetors are typically found on the side of the chainsaw’s engine. This is the most common type in chainsaws and lawnmowers. In this case, the air will flow until it exits the carb and reaches the engine.
Components of a Carburetor
A carburetor is mainly shaped like a tube. This tube is mostly made of aluminum, but some of its internal parts are stainless steel. These parts should work in harmony to perform the primary carburetor function. These parts include:
1. Throttle plate:
This is a disc that can be adjusted to open and shut. This way, it allows adequate air inside the engine or, more accurately, the carburetor. This plate is made of brass. When it is open, fuel is drawn into the carburetor as well.
2. The Venturi:
You can think of a venturi as a narrow passage. The air must pass through this narrowness, which, in turn, maximizes the speed of the air. Typically, this leads to proportional vacuuming of gasoline to make the correct mixture.
3. The Jets:
A jet in a carburetor is a small nozzle that consists of a hole. Before reaching the venturi to mix with air, the fuel must pass through. After passing successfully, the air-fuel blend is created.
Signs of Common Carburetor Problems
Before going for a carburetor tune, knowing when it needs tuning is essential. When the chainsaw’s performance is different, you can tell something is wrong with your carb. One of the common symptoms of carburetor issues is starting failure, and also when you spot dark exhaust coming from the chainsaw.
Additionally, engine overheating can be a telltale sign. Each one of these signs can indicate a different problem. But in general, their presence means it is time to bring your carburetor adjustment tool kit.
Chainsaw Carburetor Adjustment
If you suspect the carburetor to be the main culprit in your chainsaw’s issues, such as poor engine speed, you should not hesitate to inspect it. It is about manipulating all three idle, low-speed, and high-speed adjustments.
You will need the standard carburetor adjustment tool set. This includes using a digital tachometer, a flathead screwdriver, and a socket wrench. The tachometer should help in the accurate determination of the engine’s speed.
Here is a step-by-step guide for proper carb adjustment that can work for different chainsaws, including Poulan Husqvarna, Stihl, Echo, and more:
- Start inspecting the adjustment screws, which are always three. They are the idle-speed screw, the high-speed screw, and the low-speed screw.
- In all chainsaws, these screws are referred to by their first letters. The I stands for ‘idle adjustment.’ H stands for ‘high-speed’ adjustment, and L is for ‘low-speed’ adjustment.
- It is recommended to start with the high adjustment. So, use the screwdriver to rotate the H screw in a clockwise direction slowly. Stop screwing once the driver won’t turn anymore. There is no need for any forceful actions.
- Do the same action to the L adjustment setting of the low-speed carburetor adjustment screw.
- Once again, unscrew the H setting or high-speed atmosphere screw by turning it slowly in the opposite direction. Repeat the same routine with the L setting.
- Now, it is time to start the saw as you usually do. Make sure to run it at full throttle. You will have to do some screwing again with the H settings. Turn the H screw clockwise till the engine revs moderately. So, pay attention to the throttle response as you move.
- Now, it is time to turn the idle screw clockwise until the engine idles. Once you are done with this step, the engine will run smoothly and more efficiently.
- Lastly, you will tend toward a low-speed jet or the L adjustment. Rotate the screw till you hear the engine revving get louder. Once done with this step, your saw can perform at max power.
Tips for the Efficient Adjustment of Chainsaws Carburetors
If you are about to bring out the carburetor adjustment tool screwdriver kit and start working, ensure you have a clean air filter. A dirty air filter will make all the adjustment efforts go in vain. It will make the engine run lean once more.
Another helpful tip for successful carburetor tuning is to inspect the air filter. A dirty air filter will make the engine run lean again.
Critical Safety Precautions
Staying safe when adjusting a carburetor is a top priority. You should not risk getting hurt by holding the chainsaw incorrectly or running it by accident. Also, it is necessary to avoid coming into contact with the engine fan. A running fan can cut your fingers.
Keep in mind that poor adjustments can make an engine overheat. So, it is not recommended to touch it or any other part when they are hot.
Even if you are experienced with chainsaws, you should only adjust the carb with taking protective precautions. You must wear safety gloves and protective goggles.
Lastly, it is never too late to seek professional help if you cannot tackle the adjustment tasks independently. You can bring the saw to a nearby shop, where they will put everything in order.
DIY carburetor adjustment is a routine task. This means you will have to repeat it each season. Moreover, it is one of the first things that should come to mind when your engine is different.
One of the most common issues that face all chainsaw owners is the poor cleanliness of fuel lines and filters. Air filters are always exposed to debris from the trees. Moreover, fuel lines can get clogged with carbon deposits.
So, checking these components regularly for cleanliness or replacing them when needed is mandatory. Last but not least, ensure that the fuel tank is filled adequately.
The correct adjustment of your chainsaw is a costly undertaking. It is a part of the regular maintenance of any chainsaw like the Husqvarna Echo or any Stihl saw model. This action is recommended by certified technicians every time significant temperature changes occur.
It aims at improving the efficiency of the saw’s operation and increase fuel efficiency. Performing this routine adjustment is relatively easy, but it requires proper tools, careful following of the tuning tips, and safety precautions.